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Physical activity can change the physiological and psychological circumstances during COVID-19 pandemic: A narrative review

Published on: 26th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8906001902

Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity. Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise. Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine. Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
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A new applied protocol concerning COVID-19`s pandemic control: “Outdoor Access Approach” remodel of living for ensuring better ventilation

Published on: 15th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872698405

COVID-19 is a mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease that has leaded to a tremendous global pandemic wide spreading throughout nations of all continents with successive waves of high morbidities and mortalities. However, several independent vaccine production projects are working ahead for combatting the pandemic, but it is obvious they cannot create a sufficient umbrella that could protect billions of humans in a short term. Indeed, the current approved protocols including frequent cleaning of hands, social distancing and covering face mask are disappointing for their claimed capabilities to efficiently control of the pandemic. As they failed to highlight the critical determining role of air refreshing into indoors that 90 percent of infected people at least involved in enclosed spaces. Instead, Outdoor Access Approach (OAA) can be promising according veterinary medical successful experiences in control of air-borne contagious diseases as control of highly pathogenic avian influenza to become a global pandemic (One Health integration). Along with the above-mentioned protocols. Adaptation of all aspects of ordinary life activities in human societies to guarantee an efficient fresh air flow into enclosed spaces and prevention of the most dangerous air stagnation in them is the core stone of the OAA. This article discusses practical suggestions to attain such situation which can provide a kind of symbiosis with COVID-19` infection major threatening.
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Synthetic Animal: Trends in Animal Breeding and Genetics

Published on: 11th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7976985981

Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering. The subject combines various disciplines from within these domains, such as biotechnology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology, systems biology, biophysics, computer engineering, and genetic engineering. Synthetic biology aims to understand whole biological systems working as a unit, rather than investigating their individual components and design new genome. Significant advances have been made using systems biology and synthetic biology approaches, especially in the field of bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Similarly, progress is being made with ‘synthetic approaches’ in genetics and animal sciences, providing exciting opportunities to modulate, genome design and finally synthesis animal for favorite traits.
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Ranking of cadmium low amount measurement systems according to economic, environmental, and functional indicators using ELECTRE analytical method

Published on: 8th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9244774024

Cadmium is one of the transition metals, known by the scientific name Cd. One of its main characteristics is the high toxicity, even in very little amounts. Cadmium is often released through industrial effluents, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and the burning of fossil fuels. Since the presence of cadmium ions in the living organisms’ body, especially humans, can cause serious damage to the liver and pancreas, and also because its role in causing cancer has been proven, measuring very low amounts of this metal is of high importance. In the first step, this study has reviewed and analyzed common laboratory methods for measuring small amounts of cadmium. Then, according to economic, environmental, feasibility, speed, and accuracy factors, all available methods were evaluated using the ELECTRE technique. The results showed that the extraction methods using Dowex Optipore V-493 resin and extraction system in Triton X-114 surfactant, placed in the first and second positions.
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Behavior evaluation of freundlich and langmuir isotherms in cadmium preconcentration using solid phase extraction method for linear and nonlinear numerical computational patterns

Published on: 8th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9244773069

Cadmium is naturally present in the mineral cadmium sulfide which is a rare form of this element and the highest amount of cadmium is obtained from the extraction process of other minerals such as lead, copper and zinc. The release of this metal into the environment leads to widespread epidemiological effects. Therefore, measuring small amounts of this metal is also of particular importance. Small amount measuring methods of this metal are such as,preconcentration using solid phase extraction system using adsorbents. The main part of the preconcentration process is achieved by adsorption processes. In this study, the behavior of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms for the capacity of TMON and IMNM adsorbents in cadmium adsorption has been evaluated by Power and Rational statistical distributions. At the end of the study, the constant coefficients of the Freundlich and Langmuir models were compared in both linear and non-linear modes. The results showed; the linearization method for the Kf coefficient of the Freundlich isotherm can cause errors equal to 41.6% in TMON adsorbent and 39.3% in IMNM adsorbent. Also, in parameter b, errors of 66.66% are obtained in TMON adsorbent and 32.45% in IMNM adsorbent.
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