Abstract

Research Article

Rapid Microbial Growth in Reusable Drinking Water Bottles

Qishan Liu* and Hongjun Liu

Published: 06 October, 2017 | Volume 1 - Issue 1 | Pages: 055-062

Bacteria has been known to grow in pipes of water distribution systems and bottled drinking water. Its growth in reusable drinking water bottles is not clear even though they have become more popular and used by children and adults daily everywhere. This study found that there is an extremely high level of bacteria content and a rapid microbial growth in reusable drinking water bottles. The bacteria content tested by heterotrophic plate count (HPC) is in a range of 0-2.4x105 CFU/mL with an average of about 34,000 bacteria counts/ml for bottles used by children and 75,000 bacteria counts/ml for bottles used by adults. Bacteria number can quickly increases to 1-2 million counts/ml in the bottles one day later. Considering the high level of HPC bacteria content in the reusable drinking water bottles, it may be necessary to have some control measures to reduce the bacteria level and to minimize the associated likely health risk of the disease spreading since many people use reusable water bottles every day. 

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.acee.1001007 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

Keywords:

Reusable drinking water bottle; Heterotrophic plate count; Bacteria enumeration; Drinking water

References

  1. WHO 2002 The World Health Report 2002-Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva World Health Organization. Geneva.
  2. Brocklehurst C. The Case for Water and Sanitation. Better Water and Sanitation Make Good Fiscal and Economic Sense and should be Prominent in PRSPs and Budget Allocation. Water and Sanitation Programme-Africa. 2004.
  3. WHO, UNICEF. Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. In: Progress on sanitation and drinking-water: 2010 Update. World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund. Geneva and New York. 2010.
  4. Liu HJ, Tang XS, Liu QS. A novel point-of-use water treatment method by antimicrobial nanosilver textile material. J Water Health. 2014; 12: 670-677. Ref.: https://goo.gl/zHjM9d
  5. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, First Addendum to 4th Edition. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2017.
  6. Warburton DW, Peterkin PI, Weiss KF, Johnston MA. Microbiological quality of bottled water sold in Canada. Can J Microbiol. 1986; 32: 891-893. Ref.: https://goo.gl/yBGNva
  7. Bischofberger T, Cha SK, Schmitt R, König B, Schmidt-Lorenz W. The bacterial flora of non-carbonated, natural mineral water from the springs to reservoir and glass and plastic bottles. Int J Food Microbiol. 1990; 11: 51-71. Ref.: https://goo.gl/jck5aw
  8. Hunter PR. A Review: The microbiology of bottled natural mineral waters. J Appl Bacteriol. 1993; 74: 345-352. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Az9qeq
  9. Loy A, Beisker W, Meier H. Diversity of bacteria growing in natural mineral water after bottling. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005; 71: 3624-3632. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ZVHn2q
  10. Oyedeji O, Olutiola PO, Moninuola MA. Microbiological quality of packaged drinking water brands marketed in Ibadan metropolis and Ile-Ife city in South Western Nigeria. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2010; 4: 96-102. Ref.: https://goo.gl/b8xD9C
  11. LeChevallier MW. Coliform Regrowth in Drinking Water. J of American Water Works Association. 1990; 82: 74-86. Ref.: https://goo.gl/MVhpcZ
  12. Evison L, Sunna N. Microbial Regrowth in House-hold Water Storage Tanks. Journal of American Water Works Association. 2001; 93: 85-94. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JkH2tE
  13. Pepper IL, Rusin P, Quintanar DR, Haney C, Josephson KL, et.al. Tracking the concentration of heterotrophic plate count bacteria from the source to the consumer's tap. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004; 92: 289-295. Ref.: https://goo.gl/gzBemb
  14. Patrick AS, Roland A, Anani C, Dampare SB. Nutrient-Induced Growth of Coliform and HPC Bacteria in Drinking Water Pipes. J of Env Pro. 2012; 3: 508-517. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2Rp1e4
  15. Patrick AS, Roland A. Impact of Temperature on Bacterial Growth and Survival in Drinking-Water Pipes. Res J of Env and Earth Sci. 2012; 4: 807-817. Ref.: https://goo.gl/QrBx4L
  16. APHA, AWWA, WEF. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22th ed, edited by Rice EW, Baird RB, Eaton AD, Clesceri LS. American Public Health Association. Washington DC. 2012.
  17. Gonzalez C, Gutierrez C, Grande T. Bacterial flora in bottled uncarbonated mineral drinking water. Can J Microbiol. 1987; 33: 1120-1125. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xzyq89
  18. Manaia CM, Nunes OC, Morais PV, Da Costa MS. Heterotrophic plate counts and the isolation of bacteria from mineral waters on selective and enrichment media. J Appl Bacteriol. 1990; 69: 871-876. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ABjykp
  19. Tryland I, Fiksdal L. Rapid enzymatic detection of heterotrophic activity of environmental bacteria. Water Sci Tech. 1998; 38: 95-101. Ref.: https://goo.gl/fNN7Rq
  20. Leclerc H, Moreau A. Microbiological safety of natural mineral water. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2002; 26: 207-222. Ref.: https://goo.gl/LYR7mX
  21. Bartram J, Cotruvo J, Exner M, Fricker C, Glasmacher A. Heterotrophic Plate Counts and Drinking-water Safety-The Significance of HPCs for Water Quality and Human Health, World Health Organization, NSF International, International Water Association, IWA Publishing. London, UK. 2003.
  22. Hambsch B. Distributing groundwater without a disinfectant residual. J Am Water Works Assoc. 1999; 91: 81-85. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JYcgF3
  23. Ye B, Yang L, Li Y, Wang W, Li H. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013; 10: 879-891. Ref.: https://goo.gl/823rmo
  24. Health Canada. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality, 6th edn Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 1996.

Figures:

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 3

Figure 1

Figure 4

Figure 1

Figure 5

Figure 1

Figure 6

Figure 1

Figure 7

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More